All posts by Sarah Cassin-Scott

UK based photographer with a love of alternative photography.


The images from Barbed are part of a continuing series exploring the disconnect I feel from my  environment since moving to Dorset nearly 19 years ago.

I used to live on the outskirts of London in a place called Northwood; I suppose the name suggests what the environment was like! I had access to various woods, fields and parks where I lived. There was always a green space to go to, and I would walk my dog in the woods most days.

Now, living in Dorset, despite being surrounded by countryside I often feel it is all barred to me in some way. I am trying to represent that in this series of images, one of which is presented here.

When I look at this image, it describes perfectly how I feel about Dorset.

As well as the idea that there is a barrier between me and the countryside, there is a wider feeling that there is a ‘good life’ that I can see, just on the other side of the fence with beautiful blue skies and green fields – the epitome of happiness,  but for some reason it remains out of reach.

I present more of this work on my site,

SarahScott516860_march_ride_2019 (5 of 37)
Image edited in Instagram


What is a Vorticism?

Vorticism started in 1914 in London and encompassed sculpture, photography, painting, woodcuts and graphic design. The movement, which was a ‘response to French Cubism and Italian Futurism’ (1) was led by Wyndham Lewis and named by Ezra Pound. The photographer Alvin Langdon Coburn first exhibited his vortographs in 1917. I’m a huge fan of Coburn, and that’s how I originally learnt about vortographs.

All I could find out when I first started to research this was that Coburn was using an arrangement of mirrors, like a kaleidoscope, to create his images. If you look at Coburn’s vortographs you can see two slightly different types of images. One style looks like it has fractured the planes of the image into star or triangular shapes.

Vortograph by Alvin Langdon Coburn

I think these are true vortographs made with an arrangement of mirrors like so….

Taped triangular arrangement of mirrors that measure 2 x 6 inches

The other type of vortograph Coburn made looks like this:

Ezra Pound by Alvin Langdon Coburn

I wonder if this image of Ezra Pound by Coburn is made by using a stack of mirrors instead of a triangular arrangement? I have experience of making different types of vortograph myself; the only way I can think of to achieve this style is if it was made using a stacked arrangement of mirrors.

Star Vortograph
Star Vortograph
Piano Keyboard Vortograph

To make my prism (pictured above), I used 4 mirrors which I had cut at a local glaziers. They each measure 2 inches by 6 inches. If you get mirrors cut, remember to ask for the edges to be smoothed as you’ll be handling them quite a bit.

They need to be taped together to make a prism. The sides of the mirrors give really nice effects, so having a side which is thicker works well if you want to capture that, so add the extra mirror to one side. I also added thin copper tape to the sides of my mirrors at one end to help give a more defined pattern. If I don’t want the pattern I just flip the mirrors around – they don’t interfere with the image if they’re at the lens end.

Top left is where the thicker mirror edges are. You can see the copper tape showing up which makes the triangular nature of the images clearer.

I found that the technique works best with a wide angle lens; if you zoom in you can loose the effect. I’ve tried several different camera and lens combinations – all work, including an iPhone which is much easier to work with and I don’t have worries about my lenses getting scratched. But essentially it’s just experimenting to see what works. There isn’t a clever set up as such – just hold the mirror in front of the lens until you see the image you want. A tripod would help for this as it’s a bit fiddly. I’ve found that taking a ‘normal’ image and then printing it and taking the image again through the mirrors works well, or otherwise taking a vortograph of an image displayed on a computer monitor. If you look at some of my other work you’ll see the colours that are produced when using this technique of photographing a monitor or iPhone screen using a prism.

(Eyes, buses, Union Flags, New York and yes, that is Brendan Fraser top left)

To see how the planes fracture it helps to use a subject that has strong lines as you get a more pronounced effect.

Stairs, The British Museum

I started using vortographs to represent the fracturing of the UK in the aftermath of the Brexit referendum. Many of my original references will be in the initial work I did for an assignment on my photography degree which I will add to this site soon.  

I didn’t find many photographers using the technique now, if you use it after reading this post I’d love to hear from you and see how it went!


If you’ve tried cyanotypes and enjoyed them, you can take them a bit further by introducing cyanotype chemicals to black and white darkroom paper.

What You Need

This technique combines a lumen print with a cyanotype to introduce various tones and colours that you cannot achieve with cyanotype alone. For this example I’ve used Ilford RC (resin coated) multigrade paper, freshly mixed cyanotype liquid, turmeric mixed to a paste with water, and plant material to produce a cyanolumen photogram. You’ll also need photographic fix, I’m using Ilford Rapid Fixer which I will dilute, but you can now buy pouches of fixer which might be easier to use if this is a one-off trial for you, as you won’t need to dilute it. You also need a darkroom tray or other shallow plastic container that will fit your paper size.

Method – Prepare Your Paper and Expose to UV

If you will want to use your darkroom paper for darkroom printing as well as lumen prints, remove the paper you need from the pack in darkroom conditions. If not, you don’t have to worry too much about light contamination. Open it in a shady room, removing just the paper you need and closing the pack as quickly as possible to shield it from light.

Quickly coat the darkroom paper with cyanotype mixture (see here for details). I find that on the resin coated paper the liquid sits on the top of the paper. That’s fine because this is going to be a wet cyanotype. Arrange your plant material on top of the paper and add a sheet of glass to hold it all still. Put it outside in the sunlight or alternatively place under a UV lamp. If you want the yellow colour I have here, then add turmeric while adding plant material. How you add it will depend on the effect you want to create, and you’ll need to experiment to find out what works. I have randomly added turmeric to the base and placed plant material on top. Next time I might dip the plant into turmeric and see how that works. Remember, the strength of this type of technique is that the process can create happy accidents. You have to be willing to let go of control and really experiment in order for those accidents to happen.

This cyanolumen print was left outside for 6 hours in strong UV light, but you don’t need to leave them that long; however, they do take longer than a standard cyanotype to create, and among the community of creators it seems the general feel for these is the longer the better in exposure terms with 24 hour exposures being perfectly normal. This is not instant photography! I’m not yet practiced enough with various plant materials to be able to put more accurate timings on exposure and it will also depend on where you are in the world, but for thicker plant material I’d go for a longer exposure time but for anything delicate I’d look at about 3 or 4 hours in high UV light.

The main things to look for when creating the print are that the plant material is making good contact with the paper, and that the whole thing is held together firmly to create sharp edges. I find that using heavy glass works well, but if yours is thin then use some clips to help to create that firm contact and to hold everything together firmly.

Rinse, Fix and Dry

When finished with the exposure, I first rinse my print in water. You might want to take a photograph of it at this stage because colours can change once the print has been put in the fix. Remove any plant material that remains on the paper – it’s helpful to have an old, small paintbrush at hand for this.

For the fix I’d recommend you wear gloves and leave a window open because it’s an unpleasant smell for most people and you don’t want this getting onto your skin. You don’t have to do this in darkroom conditions, you can mix this stuff up in daylight. I mixed my fix at a ratio of 1 part fix to 4 parts water and put in in the tray. I do this just before I finish the exposure so the fix is not hanging around because of the smell. If you’re not sure how much to mix, fill your tray with enough water to cover your paper easily (maybe half way), pour the water into a measuring jug to see how much liquid you will need. Divide that number by 5. That will give you the amount liquid in each part. So if I want 500ml of water, I want 100ml of Ilford rapid fixer, and 400ml of water. Check the instructions on the fix you’re using to make sure you get the ratio correct.

When you’ve finished rinsing your print in water, wearing gloves put in into the fix. I dipped my print in fix and then rinsed with water immediately. I didn’t let it sit in the water, but if you have a fibre based paper you might like to leave it for up to a minute. You can keep the fix in a dark bottle out of direct sunlight and reuse it. Please dispose of this responsibly because it is toxic to aquatic life.

Rinse the fix from the paper thoroughly in running water, and leave the print flat to dry.


Because of the long exposure times, you may get better results from firm, thick plant material. Anything delicate tends to produce a texture on the paper rather than an image. The example below was my first try at a cyanolumen; it’s fennel seed heads and fronds, exposed for 24 hours. As you can see, this is mainly textural. I also didn’t rinse it well because I was worried the blue would disappear.

I suspect (I’m going to try it but I don’t know yet) that fibre based paper is better than resin coated paper for this. I will put the results here when I have them.

Look out for cats sitting on your nice warm glass. Mine did this, although I’ve no idea how long for! I looked out of the window and there he was, settled on the glass for nap time.

Like a standard wet cyanotype, you can try adding vinegar, bubbles, etc to your base.

You can try a straightforward lumen print.

Simple Lumen Prints

How to Create a Lumen Print

For this you will need:

  • Darkroom black and white photographic paper; I’m using Ilford multigrade resin coated*
  • Photographic fixer; I’m using Ilford Rapid Fixer
  • Sunshine or UV light
  • Running water to rinse
  • Glass and board to put it all on, or a contact frame
  • Plant material or something to block light that you want a photogram image of. I’ve used a fern. You could also try a contact print using a negative the same size as the image you want to produce. You can make these yourself, see the bottom of this post for tips on producing a negative at home.

The process here is very simple. Take your paper, put the plant material or negative onto it and add glass on top to stop it all moving about. Take it outside on a sunny day and leave it from 30 minutes to 24 hours. Rinse in water and then put in fixer for 30 seconds to a minute to make the image permanent. Rinse with water again.

That is it. Simplicity. The most difficult bit is mixing up the fixer and that’s easy and can be made easier if you buy a pre-mixed pouch. Of course, like cyanotypes you can take this process further. But in essence that is all there is to it.

*Open your paper in a darkened room to avoid exposing it to light. If you want to use the paper for darkroom printing too, then always open under darkroom conditions.

image adjusted

Cyanotype: Taking it Further

My guide to creating a cyanotype.

I decided to try a few experiments to work out how various additions to a wet cyanotype can effect the outcome, and then to tone these experiments.

If you’re particularly interested in this I’d recommend you follow the blog as I intend to do a lot more of these as I found it a useful exercise. I’ve also now got a UV light specifically made for photography. I’ve not used it in this instance, but I hope it will give more accurate results in the long term.

Creating the Wet Cyanotype

I coated my paper with two coats of cyanotype emulsion and let it dry assuming I would begin work the next day. Thanks to the weather that didn’t happen, and it sat in it’s light-tight envelope for about four days until I used it.

My paper was a Windsor and Newton 100% cotton watercolour paper, slightly larger than A4, and I used ivy as my material to create a photogram. Ivy isn’t great because it’s quite thick and doesn’t lay flat, but I knew I’d be leaving this out for a few hours and I wanted to use something that would definitely block the light. So I used a foam board under my paper to allow a bit of room for the ivy to squish down properly under the glass.

I divided the paper up into three parts. The right here is is brushed with a 50% white vinegar 50% water solution using a foam brush. The middle has a paste made from turmeric and water brushed across it, and the left side has bubbles from a tray of washing up liquid added to it. So the paper was wet – when this is the case it’s a good idea to expose the cyanotype for longer than usual. A minimum of about 4 hours, but you can also try overnight. I added the ivy, put it all under glass and left it outside for 5 hours. The UV was medium to high, and it went out at 12pm and came back in at 5pm.

Above is the dried image scanned the next day. You can clearly see all of the materials I added to this. You can see bubbles, the turmeric is clear and the vinegar solution has clearly increased the contrast of the image on the right.

Toning Trials

I then cut this cyanotype into four so I’d have a piece for each of the three toning treatments I wanted to experiment with that would have the wet cyanotype trials on each piece, and one reference piece to compare the toned papers to the untoned.


I placed one trial paper in a dilution of standard thin household bleach; this was 100ml of bleach and about 700ml of water, and it was left to soak for about 20 minutes.

You can see that green has been produced here. I didn’t keep an eye on it as it changed and I should have done because other colours might have appeared. With this type of process you do have to use your judgement, and it’s best to keep an eye on it. I find things dry a bit darker than I expect so if you’re bleaching in order to tone later on then you might want to let it go a bit paler than you think. Something to keep in mind. You can clearly see the effect of the vinegar has persisted on the right hand side of the image leaving the blue intact. The colour of the turmeric has disappeared.

Citric Acid

This piece has been placed in some anhydrous citric acid but you could try lemon juice. I initially used 250ml of water to 25g citric acid. I had no idea what dilution to use so that seemed like a good starting point. I left it for half an hour, and the yellow of the turmeric looked almost gold. I wasn’t sure if that was the result of the acid or the result of just putting it back into water, so I upped the concentration to 100g citric acid to 600ml warm water to see if the paper would get lighter. That made no difference at all, so I rinsed and dried. Again, the result of the vinegar solution is clear to see.


The next trial was tannin. I’ve used tea bags to tone a cyanotype before, but this is tannin powder used for wine making. I used 8g tannin to 700ml water. I left this for about 10 minutes. This is easily my favourite result. The bubbles are clearly visible, the turmeric is just beautiful, and the vinegar is still clearly increasing the contrast. So tannin is something I will certainly return to for toning, while keeping in mind the results from the other chemicals in order to adjust my results.


Here you can see the original cyanotype put back together and scanned. So this is the top image of this post turned 90 degrees counter-clockwise. This comparison shows the results most clearly. Next on my list to try is borax, soda crystals, and maybe some bicarb or baking powder. I also want to add more bubbles because I didn’t get enough onto the paper during this trial so I can’t see what effect the bleach or citric acid have had on those patterns. I also want to try to create some prints on coloured paper.

Epic Top 10 Free Image Sites

My list includes sites that specialise in photography, as well as some more unusual image resources for something a bit different. It’s not in order of preference as these are all great sites.

1 Unsplash

Unsplash calls itself ‘the internet’s source of freely-usable images’. It provides free images (photography) for both commercial and non-commercial use. Although attribution is encouraged, it’s not required. That makes it a go-to for web developers everywhere; with no difficult licensing to understand and no complex attribution required, it’s just simple.

Photo by Michael Walk on Unsplash

2 Pexels

If you use WordPress and make use of the free images provided via your media library, those images will probably come from this site. Just like Unsplash, the licensing is simple – “All photos and videos on Pexels can be downloaded and used for free”. Using Pexels via the media library on WordPress automatically takes care of the attribution for you which is an added bonus.

Pexels does give a link to your photographer and allows you to make a donation, but unlike Pixabay you don’t learn much about them.

Photo by Adnan on

3 The Wellcome Collection

The Wellcome Collection is ‘a free museum and library that aims to challenge how we all think and feel about health’. You can use this link to search for free, downloadable images taken from the library and museum collections, including paintings, illustrations and photos. This is a great resource for some very unusual images. I particularly like old botanical illustrations and this is a great resource for those. Images are available to download in various sizes and licensing is clearly explained with many images available to use for any purpose. They do ask that you include an image credit (often just the title of the work) and a link back to their site. You’ll see various images on The Epic Compendium from The Wellcome Collection because I love it so much.

Tea plant (Camellia sinensis): flowering stem. Watercolour. From The Wellcome Collection.

4 The Biodiversity Heritage Library

Another resource for this type of image is the Biodiversity Heritage Library. You can find images on Flickr or directly from their website. Many of the items in BHL’s collection are in the public domain and free to reuse without risk of copyright infringement, but do check before use, particularly if you plan to use the images commercially.

Image from The Biodiversity Heritage Library, taken from ‘Illustrations of the natural orders of plants with groups and descriptions’. By Twining, Elizabeth, 1805-1889

5 Wikimedia Commons

Wikimedia commons is a resource of about 74 million media files. The photographs are of varying quality. If you want beautiful images for your blog this might not be the site for you, and it’s not intuitive to use. However, all that aside, if you know what you’re looking for it can be a great resource. The licensing and attribution requirements are usually clear, and you can download images in several sizes.

No secret to anyone who knows me is that my favourite photographer is Alvin Langdon Coburn. This is a self portrait of Coburn aged 23 from Wikimedia Commons.

Alvin Langdon Coburn (1882-1966); Self-Portrait at Age 23 from Wikimedia Commons


Obviously if you want space images the NASA website is the place to go. Do check the licensing requirements to make sure you’re complying with them as the site says that NASA images, ‘generally are not subject to copyright in the United States’. I take that to mean that you’re free to use them for most purposes, but if your purpose is commercial you might need to check out their media usage guidelines thoroughly to make sure. To find the best images check out the ‘most popular’ header under the image search bar as the ‘newest uploads’ can be a bit dull.

While we’re on space, as a European myself I feel I must add a link to the European Space Agency, ESA, as they also have an image resource available. It’s not as extensive as NASA, but there are some great images available.

Wispy tendrils of hot dust and gas glow brightly in this ultraviolet image of the Cygnus Loop nebula, taken by NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The nebula lies about 1,500 light-years away. From NASA.

7 Rijks Museum

I stumbled across this museum collection by accident, and it’s great. Not only do they have high resolution images to download, they have a Rijksstudio – a resource that enables you to curate your own collection of images and gives you tools and ideas for manipulating them to create your own work of art. I’ve not had time to sit and play with this yet, but the creative possibilities are exciting. The only thing I’d like to see is an option to download smaller, lower quality versions of the images.

I’m assuming that because they provide high resolution images that have a download button, you’re free to use them as you wish. However, as with all commercial uses it is best to double check that assumption!

Self-portrait, Vincent van Gogh, 1887 from Rijks Museum.

8 The British Library

The best way to see images from The British Library is to visit their Flickr page. They say that their “collections on Flickr Commons offer access to millions of public domain images, which we encourage you to explore and re-use.” If it’s images in particular that you want, this Flickr site really is so much easier than trying to find images via their actual website. My personal favourite among their many albums of images is called ‘Space and Sci-Fi‘.

You can choose from various sizes of images for different uses and I find the option to do that very helpful.

The first image is from Space and Sci-Fi: Title: “La Terre: description des phénomènes de la vie du globe. I. Les Continents. II. L’Ocean, l’Atmosphere, la Vie”Author(s): Reclus, Elisée, 1830-1905 

The second image is from the album Myths and Creatures: Title: “A Strange Manuscript found in a Copper Cylinder [A novel. By James De Mille.] With illustrations by G. Gaul”Author(s): De Mille, James

9 Creative Commons

Quoting directly from their website, ‘One goal of Creative Commons is to increase the amount of openly licensed creativity in “the commons” — the body of work freely available for legal use, sharing, repurposing, and remixing. Through the use of CC licenses, millions of people around the world have made their photos, videos, writing, music, and other creative content available for any member of the public to use.’

However, you must follow the licence conditions, and the main condition for all CC licenses is attribution. To help you out, they provide a link for best practices for attribution, but they suggest the ideal is title, author, source and licence. You may also need to include any changes you’ve made to the image, but as with all of these sites always check each image you’re using.

I must admit I find all the various licences confusing. When you’re looking for an image to use right now for a particular project then having to work out what to do can be off-putting, and for photos I’d be more likely to use another site where the usage is very clear across the site. Is it laziness? No, I just want to get it right and I want getting it right to be easy.

The search facility typically leads to a link to the website for the image, in this case it went to Flickr, straight to the image on the photographers photo stream. (I had to search for puppies and obviously when I saw this one I couldn’t resist).

Puppy Love‘ by on Flickr  CC BY 2.0 license.

10 Pixabay

Pixabay says it has 2.3 million+ high quality stock images as well as videos and music. You can browse easily and you’re encouraged to sign up for an account. Signing up is quick and easy, but it did take my confirmation email a while to arrive. Pixabay is like Unsplash and Pexels, it’s great for images for blogs and websites.

As a photographer, I think I’d probably be more inclined to submit images to Pixabay because it has a link to buy the photographer a coffee – you can choose to pay for the image you use via PayPal, and you can decide the amount. I think it’s a nice touch. It also seems easier to find out a bit about the photographer and you can follow them to keep up with their work. In fact, browsing around Pixabay and having made myself an account I think I’ll start uploading some images myself very soon!

The usage is crystal clear – for this image it was, ‘Free for commercial use, No attribution required’.

However, you should always try to include attribution; it’s not nice to have absolutely no acknowledgement for your work.

Image by Uschi_Du on Pixabay

Featured image is from It’s not giving me the name of the photographer – sorry!